Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a kind of cancer that start in the ovaries. The female generative system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — build eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovarian cancer frequently goes undetected that it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is longer hard to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer is more likely to be treated successfully.


Female reproductive system

Early-stage ovarian cancer rarely causes any symptoms. Advanced-stage ovarian cancer may  origin few and nonspecific symptoms that are often mistaken for more common benign conditions.

Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Quickly feeling full when eating
  • Weight loss
  • Discomfort in the pelvis area
  • Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
  • A frequent need to urinate

When to see a doctor

meeting with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

whether you have a family history of ovarian cancer or breast cancer, speak to your doctor about your risk of ovarian cancer. Your doctor may refer you to a genetic counselor to talk about testing for certain gene mutations that grow your risk of breast and ovarian cancers.


It’s not clear what causes ovarian cancer, though doctors have identified factors that can increase the risk of the disease.

In general, cancer begins when a cell spread errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and increase rapidly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. The unusual cells continue living when healthy cells would die.

Types of ovarian cancer

The type of cell where the cancer start regulate the type of ovarian cancer you have. Ovarian cancer types include:

  • Epithelial tumors,which start  in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries.  Nearly 90 percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumors.
  • Stromal tumors,which start in the ovarian tissue that contains hormone-producing cells. These tumors are normally  diagnosed at an earlier stage than other ovarian tumors. Nearly 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal.
  • Germ cell tumors,which start in the egg-producing cells. These rare ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women.


Risk factors

Element that can increase your risk of ovarian cancer include:

  • Older age.Ovarian cancer can happen at any age but is most common in women ages 50 to 60 years.
  • Inherited gene mutations.A small percentage of ovarian cancers are make happen by gene mutations you inherit from your parents. The genes known to grow the chance of ovarian cancer are called breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2). These genes also grow the chances of breast cancer.
  • Family history of ovarian cancer.People with two or more close relatives with ovarian cancer have an increased possibility of the disease.
  • Estrogen hormone replacement therapy,mostly with long-term use and in huge doses.
  • Age when menstruation started and ended.Beginning menstruation at an early age or begin menopause at a later age, or both, may grow the  chance of ovarian cancer.


There’s no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But there may be ways to make less your risk:

  • Consider taking birth control pills.Query your doctor whether birth control pills may be right for you. Women who use oral contraceptives may have a lower  chances of ovarian cancer . But oral contraceptives do have chances, so talk about whether the benefits outweigh those risks based on your situation.
  • Discuss your risk factors with your doctor.If you have a family history of breast and ovarian cancers, show this up with your doctor. Your doctor can control what this may mean for your own chances of cancer. In some cases, your doctor may mention you to a genetic counselor who can help you decide whether genetic testing may be right for you. on condition that you’re found to have a gene mutation that growth your risk of ovarian cancer, you may consider surgery to remove your ovaries to prevent cancer.